AURUM CORONARIUM


AURUM CORONARIUM
AURUM CORONARIUM (Latin "gold for the crown"), term for two separate taxes paid in ancient times. (1) It was originally a voluntary gift donated by the provinces to victorious Roman generals and later to emperors upon accession. The gift had the form of a golden crown. In time it became a mandatory tax, collected by every new emperor. When, from the third century C.E., Roman rule changed hands every two or three years, it became a heavy burden. It is not surprising, therefore, that Romans and Jews alike tried to evade payment of the tax. The Talmud tells of "the crown for which the inhabitants of Tiberias were called upon to find money." After demanding that R. Judah ha-Nasi, who was apparently responsible for transfer of the money, distribute the heavy burden equally among all residents, half the citizens of Tiberias finally fled to avoid payment (BB 8a). (2) For the Jews, however, aurum coronarium took on another meaning, namely the voluntary contributions of world Jewry to support the Patriarchate in Palestine. These funds, called Demei Kelila (דְמֵי כְּלִילָא) in rabbinic sources (BB 143a), were collected by official messengers (ἁπόστολοι) of the patriarch, and as a result were also known as apostolé. According to Epiphanius (Adv. haereses 1:30, 3–12) these emissaries were of the highest rank and participated in the patriarch's councils. A similar description appears in the letter of authorization given to R. Ḥiyya b. Abba: "We are sending you a great man, our messenger, who shall be treated on a par with ourselves until he returns to us" (TJ, Ḥag. 1:8, 76d; TJ, Ned. 10:10, 42b). The emperor Julian, probably in an attempt to secure the good will of those Jewish communities who were forced to carry the burden, ordered the discontinuation of the Jewish tax (362–3 C.E.). This pause however, was only temporary (as was a similar one in 399–404 C.E.) and collection of the aurum coronarium continued until 429 C.E. After the suppression of the Patriarchate in 425 C.E., the funds were delivered to the Palestinian academies. In an edict dated May 30, 429 C.E., the aurum coronarium was officially converted by the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III into a special Jewish tax to the state treasury (Codex Theod. 16, 8:29). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lacombrade, in: Revue des études anciennes, 51 (1949), 54–59; Alon, Toledot, 1 (1953), 147, 156 ff.; Baron, Social, 2 (19522), 194–5; Juster, Juifs, 1 (1914), 385. (Isaiah Gafni)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • AURUM Coronarium — hinc ortum. Victorum praemium antiquissimis temporibus laurus fuit, in cuius locum postea corona ex auro successit Festus Pomp. l. 18. Triumphales coronae sunt, quae Imperatori victori aureae praeferuntur, quae olim propter paupertatem laureae… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • CORONARIUM Aurum — de quo sic A. Gellius, l. 5. c. 6. Triumphales coronae sunt aureae, quae Imperatoribus ob honorem triumphi mittuntur. Id vulgo dicitur aurum coronarium: hae antiquitus e lauru erant etc. Verum non tantum coronae; sed aurum postea ad coronas… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Aurum — (lat.), 1) Gold, u. zwar bei den Römern [35] A. ad obrussam (A. obryzum), Gold nach der Feuerprobe, das reinste, feinste Gold; 2) was aus Gold gemacht ist, so A. coronarium, goldener Kranz, welchen die Provinzialen einem Proconsul nach einem… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • AES Coronarium — in Cyprii aeris generibus, tenuatur in laminas, taurorumque felle tinctum, speciem auri in coronis histrionum praebet, ita Plin. l. 34. c. 8. Inde nomen adeptum, teste Isidorô l. 16. c. 19. Graeci Χολοβαφον vocant, et χολοβάφινον, i. e. felle… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • SCCIALE Bellum — Historicis dictum est, quod Romanis, cum plerisque Italiae popelis, Etruscis, Latinis, Sabinisque; item cum Marsis, Pelignis, Vestinis, Marrucinis: hosque sequutis Picentibus, Frentanis, Hirpinis, Pompeianis, Venusinis, Appulis, Lucanis,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Triumph (Erfolg) — Der Triumphbogen Konstantins des Großen in Rom. Die Quadriga und die übrigen Aufbauten oben auf dem Triumphbogen und damit die eigentliche Ehrung fehlen heute Ein Triumph (lateinisch: triumphus; auch Triumphzug) war im alten Rom der feierliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Triumphator — Der Triumphbogen Konstantins des Großen in Rom. Die Quadriga und die übrigen Aufbauten oben auf dem Triumphbogen und damit die eigentliche Ehrung fehlen heute Ein Triumph (lateinisch: triumphus; auch Triumphzug) war im alten Rom der feierliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Triumphzug — Der Triumphbogen Konstantins des Großen in Rom. Die Quadriga und die übrigen Aufbauten oben auf dem Triumphbogen und damit die eigentliche Ehrung fehlen heute Ein Triumph (lateinisch: triumphus; auch Triumphzug) war im alten Rom der feierliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • CORONA — I. CORONA Urbs Daciae mediterranea forsan Palmissa antiqu. Nunc urbs Transylvaniae ad Burciam amnem, Stephanopolis et Brassovia etiam: munita in regiuncul. Burcza; ubi 3. suburbia, quorum unum Bulgari, 2. Hungari, 3. Saxones incolunt. 12. leuc.… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Châsse des rois mages — 35° 02′ 12″ N 81° 38′ 54″ W / 35.03669, 81.64845 …   Wikipédia en Français


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